John R. Ball is interim president of the Milbank Memorial Fund. A retired medical executive, he has served as chief executive officer of the American College of Physicians, Pennsylvania Hospital, and, most recently, the American Society for Clinical Pathology. Following training, Dr. Ball spent six years in the U.S. Public Health Service, three of which were in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies in 1991, and has chaired numerous study committees for the IOM. His research and writing interests have focused on health technology assessment, clinical practice guidelines, and quality assurance. He received his MD and JD degrees from Duke University.