The Milbank Memorial Fund is an endowed operating foundation that publishes The Milbank Quarterly, commissions projects, and convenes state health policy decision makers on issues they identify as important to population health.
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We publish The Milbank Quarterly, as well as reports, issues briefs, and case studies on topics important to population health.
December 2014 (Volume 92)
John Z. Ayanian, MD, MPP, is the Alice Hamilton Professor of Medicine and director of the Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation at the University of Michigan. He also serves as associate editor of the New England Journal of Medicine. His research focuses on quality of care, access to care, and health care disparities. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine.
Ronald Bayer, PhD, is a professor and codirector at the Center for the History and Ethics of Public Health at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University. His research has focused on AIDS, tuberculosis, illicit drugs, and tobacco. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine, and has served on its committees dealing with the social impact of AIDS, tuberculosis elimination, vaccine safety, smallpox vaccination, and the Ryan White Care Act. He has been a consultant to the World Health Organization on ethical issues related to public health surveillance, HIV, and tuberculosis. His articles on AIDS have appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, The Lancet, the American Journal of Public Health, and The Milbank Quarterly.
Nick Black, MD, FRCS, FRCP, FFPH, is professor of health services research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. His main interests are the use of clinical databases for the evaluation and audit of health services, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), the relationship between research and policy, and the history of health services. He coedits the Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, was founding chair of the UK Health Services Research Network, and in 2006 published Walking London’s Medical History (CRC Press) to raise public understanding of health services and health care policy through 7 walks in London. Since 2007 he has advised the Department of Health, NHS England, and the Care Quality Commission on several aspects of quality assessment including avoidable hospital deaths, PROMs, and national clinical audits and enquiries. In 2013 he was the first recipient of a new international career achievement award for work on PROMs by the Medical Outcomes Trust in the United States.
Dave A. Chokshi, MD, MSc, is assistant vice president in the Office of Healthcare Improvement at the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation. He is a primary care internist and is an assistant professor of population health and medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center. He served as senior advisor to the commissioner at the New York State Department of Health during 2013–2014.
Kayla M. Cline, MSc, is a second-year doctoral student in the School of Public Health at Texas A&M Health Science Center (TAMHSC). Cline obtained a BBA and an MSc with a concentration in accounting from Texas A&M University. She is currently pursuing certification as a certified public accountant. As a research assistant for the Center for Health Organization Transformation at TAMHSC, an industry/university cooperative research center funded by the National Science Foundation, she focuses her research on surgical care coordination and care teams.
Jonathan Cohn is a senior editor at the New Republic and the author of Sick: The Untold Story of America’s Health Care Crisis—and the People Who Pay the Price (HarperCollins Publishing, 2007). He has been a media fellow with the Kaiser Family Foundation and a senior fellow at Demos, and is currently a member of the National Academy of Social Insurance. He has also written for the Atlantic, The New York Times, and Self, among other publications.
Lawrence B. Finer, PhD, is the director of domestic research at the Guttmacher Institute. He is responsible for supervising Guttmacher’s research portfolio of US-focused projects on family planning services, contraceptive use patterns, pregnancy and abortion, and adolescent reproductive health. His own research has focused on estimating unintended pregnancy at the national and state level. He is also the director of the NIH-funded Guttmacher Center for Population Research Innovation and Dissemination. He received an AB in psychology from Harvard and his PhD in population dynamics from the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.
Jennifer J. Frost, DrPH, MPH, joined the Guttmacher Institute in 1992. She is currently a senior research associate at the Institute. Over the last 2 decades, she has served as the principal investigator for numerous studies examining family planning service delivery, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, and access to reproductive health care. Frost received a BA from Pomona College and her MPH and DrPH from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Lawrence O. Gostin, JD, is University Professor in Global Health Law at Georgetown University, faculty director of the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, and director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center on Public Health Law and Human Rights. He has chaired numerous National Academy of Sciences committees, proposed a Framework Convention on Global Health endorsed by the United Nations Secretary General, served on the WHO Director’s Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on Reforming the WHO, drafted a Model Public Health Law for the WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and directed the National Council of Civil Liberties and the National Association for Mental Health in the United Kingdom, where he wrote the Mental Health Act and brought landmark cases before the European Court of Human Rights. In the United Kingdom, he was awarded the Rosemary Delbridge Prize for the person “who has most influenced Parliament and government to act for the welfare of society.”
Bita A. Kash, PhD, MBA, is an associate professor at Texas A&M Health Science Center. Kash received an MBA from The Citadel and a PhD in health services research from Texas A&M University. As the director of the Center for Health Organization Transformation (CHOT), an industry/university cooperative research center funded by the National Science Foundation, she focuses her research on organizational capacity for change and transformations in health care. Kash’s research model relies on the knowledge and experience of health care leaders to guide academic research. This cooperative model ensures that research is both meaningful and applicable to the health care industry and provides immediate decision support for CHOT industry members.
Jonathan Mathers, PhD, is a senior lecturer in qualitative and mixed-methods applied health research in the School of Health and Population Sciences at the University of Birmingham in the UK. He holds a PhD (by publication) in health policy and has considerable experience with mixed-methods and theory-based approaches to policy and health technology evaluation and implementation. He has published in a number of policy-related areas including research focusing on the expansion of undergraduate medical education, widening access to medicine, the impact of and public involvement in regeneration policy, and health care professionals’ reactions to health policy interventions. Much of his current research focuses on the integration of qualitative research approaches with applied health and clinical research, including clinical trials.
Terri Menser, MBA, is a research associate and fourth-year doctoral student at the Texas A&M Health Science Center’s School of Public Health, pursuing a degree in health services research. She received an MBA from Florida State University. Prior to her current course of study, Menser worked for the Florida Department of Health on a project to develop a statewide health disparities research agenda. She has worked in both education and industry as a high school teacher and manager. Her research interests include organizational culture change, burnout, performance management, and care coordination.
Thomas R. Miller, PhD, MBA, joined the American Society of Anesthesiologists as the director of health policy research in 2012. Previously, he was an assistant professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Texas A&M University where he taught health care financial management and held a research position at Scott & White Healthcare and the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Prior to receiving his PhD in health services and policy from the University of Iowa, he served as vice president in a national health care management consulting firm with over 25 years of industry experience. His research interests include comparative effectiveness and cost analysis related to anesthesia and perioperative services.
Maria W.G. Nijhuis-van der Sanden, PT, is chief and professor in the allied health sciences (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy) at the Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare and the Department of Rehabilitation at the Radboud University Medical Center. She uses qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to design, implement, and monitor efficient and effective allied health care interventions. Her research interests include the patient as an active participant in the rehabilitation process, behavioral change of professionals to use evidence-based reasoning and to cope with patient preferences at the same time, the development of reliable outcome measurements by patient experience measurements, and patient-reported outcome measurements with a special focus on the connection of the consultancy room to the meso/macro level.
Jayne Parry, MBChB, MD, FFPH, is professor of policy and public health, and head of the School of Health and Population Sciences at the University of Birmingham, UK. Parry is medically qualified, specialising in public health medicine, and she undertook her doctoral work on the impact of health service reforms on cancer survival and other outcomes. Her present research program focuses on the assessment and evaluation of the health impacts of national policy initiatives. She has received major grants from the Department of Health, the National Institute for Health Research, and other bodies to support her work in this field.
Sara Rosenbaum, JD, is the Harold and Jane Hirsh Professor of Health Law and Policy and founding chair of the Department of Health Policy at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. She also holds professorships in the Schools of Law and Medicine and Health Sciences. A graduate of Wesleyan University and Boston University Law School, Rosenbaum has devoted her career to issues of health justice for populations that are medically underserved as a result of race, poverty, disability, or cultural exclusion. Between 1993 and 1994, Rosenbaum worked for President Clinton, where she directed the drafting of the Health Security Act and designed the Vaccines for Children program, which today provides near-universal immunization coverage to low-income and medically underserved children. Rosenbaum is the leading author of Law and the American Health Care System(Foundation Press, 2012) and has received many national awards for her work in public health policy. She is past chair of AcademyHealth and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Rosenbaum also serves on the CDC Director’s Advisory Committee and is a founding commissioner of the Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission, which advises Congress on federal Medicaid policy.
David Rosner, PhD, MPH, is the Ronald H. Lauterstein Professor of Sociomedical Sciences and professor of history at Columbia University and codirector of the Center for the History and Ethics of Public Health at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health. He is also an elected member of the Institute of Medicine. In addition to receiving numerous grants, he has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Investigator Award, a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow, and a Josiah Macy Fellow. He and Gerald Markowitz are coauthors on 10 books including Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution (University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002; 2013) and Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America’s Children (University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2013).
John Rugge, MD, is a family physician and founding CEO of Hudson Headwaters Health Network, a multi-site federally qualified health center in northern New York. He is chair of the planning committee of the New York State Public Health and Planning Council.
Eric C. Schneider, MD, MSc, is senior scientist and director of the RAND Boston office and holds the RAND Distinguished Chair in Health Care Quality. He is associate professor in the Division of General Medicine and Primary Care at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. Schneider’s research addresses the quality of health care with a focus on the specification, use, and impact of performance measurement and reporting in health care. He has published widely on the development and evaluation of performance measures and the uses of performance data in health care to evaluate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in health care quality as well as the use of organizational innovations and health information technology to improve quality. He is cochair of the Committee for Performance Measurement of the National Committee for Quality Assurance, a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and a fellow of the American College of Physicians.
Nirav R. Shah, MD, MPH, is the senior vice president and chief operating officer for clinical operations for Kaiser Permanente’s Southern California region, a $20 billion health system with 14 hospitals, 168 medical offices, and over 3.7 million members. He oversees health plan and hospital quality, service, accreditation, regulatory compliance, and licensure, as well as nursing, the continuum of care, and the effective use of technology, data, and analytics to produce better patient health outcomes. Shah is board certified in internal medicine and is a graduate of Harvard College and the Yale School of Medicine. Previously, he was an RWJF Clinical Scholar at UCLA, attending physician at Bellevue Hospital in Manhattan, associate investigator at Geisinger Health in central Pennsylvania, and a faculty member of NYU Medical Center in the section of value and comparative effectiveness. Most recently, he served as commissioner of the New York State Department of Health. Shah is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine.
Joshua M. Sharfstein, MD, is secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. He served as principal deputy commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration from 2009 to 2011 and as the commissioner of health in Baltimore, Maryland, from December 2005 to March 2009. From July 2001 to December 2005, Sharfstein served on the minority staff of the Committee on Government Reform of the US House of Representatives, working for Congressman Henry A. Waxman. He serves on the Health Information Technology Policy Committee for the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice of the Institute of Medicine, and the editorial board of JAMA. He is a 1991 graduate of Harvard College, a 1996 graduate of Harvard Medical School, a 1999 graduate of the combined residency program in pediatrics at Boston Medical Center and Boston Children’s Hospital, and a 2001 graduate of the fellowship program in general pediatrics at the Boston University School of Medicine.
Freya Lund Sonenstein, PhD, is professor emerita in the Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. From 2002 to 2013 she directed the Johns Hopkins Center for Adolescent Health, a prevention research center funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Earlier she directed the Population Research Center at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC. She is the author of numerous research articles related to reproductive health, many with an emphasis on the sexual and reproductive health of men.
Adam Sonfield, MPP, joined the Guttmacher Institute in 1997 and serves as a senior public policy associate and the executive editor of the Institute’s public policy journal, the Guttmacher Policy Review. Sonfield’s portfolio includes research and policy analysis on public and private financing of reproductive health care in the United States, the rights and responsibilities of health care providers and patients, and men’s sexual and reproductive health. His recent focus has been the enactment and implementation of the Affordable Care Act and its potential impact on family planning coverage, services, programs, and providers. Sonfield earned an AB with honors in social studies from Harvard University and an MPP with a focus in health policy at Georgetown University.
Rebecca Taylor, MPH, MFPH, is a clinical research fellow in the West Midlands Collaborative Leadership for Applied Health Research and Care program at the University of Birmingham in the UK. She is a public health physician with experience in patient and population-level practice. She holds an MPH, MFPH, and is an honorary consultant at Public Health England. Her current role involves working with patients, clinicians, and academics to define, develop, and deliver research to improve maternity services and outcomes, using a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. Alongside her current fellowship, she is in the process of completing doctoral work that explores the mechanism by which community health workers deliver health improvement.
Philip J. Van der Wees, PhD, PT, is a senior researcher at the Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare of Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He is also affiliated with Celsus, the center of excellence in the Netherlands for sustainable health care. His research projects are aimed at the quality, implementation, and evaluation of health care. From 2010 to 2012 he was chair of the Guidelines International Network. In 2011 he was selected by the Commonwealth Fund for the Harkness Fellowship in Health Care Policy and Practice, and he worked from 2011 to 2013 at Harvard Medical School in Boston to conduct his fellowship. In 2012 he was also affiliated with the RAND Corporation in Boston.
Gert P. Westert, PhD, is director of the Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare and professor of health services research and quality of care at Radboud University Medical Center. Previously, he was head of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report (www.healthcareperformance.nl) and professor of health services research at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. His background is in medical sociology and research methodology/statistics. Westert’s research interests include health system and health care performance, international comparisons of access to and quality of health care, medical practice variation, and disparities in use of health care resources and health. Westert is editor of the book Morbidity, Performance and Quality in Primary Care (Radcliffe, 2006) and coauthor of 4 university textbooks in the fields of public health, health services research, and health economics. He has coauthored 150 scientific papers on health and health care issues.
Gail R. Wilensky, PhD, is an economist and senior fellow at Project HOPE, an international health foundation. She directed the Medicare and Medicaid programs and served in the White House as a senior adviser on health and welfare issues to President George H.W. Bush. She was also the first chair of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Her expertise is in strategies to reform health care, with particular emphasis on Medicare, comparative effectiveness research, and military health care. Wilensky currently serves as a trustee of the Combined Benefits Fund of the United Mine Workers of America and the National Opinion Research Center, and is on the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the Visiting Committee of the Harvard Medical School, and the Board of Directors of the Geisinger Health System Foundation. She is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and chair of its Healthcare Servicing Board. She is a former chair of the board of directors of AcademyHealth and a former trustee of the American Heart Association. She received a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a PhD in economics at the University of Michigan and has received several honorary degrees.
Yichen Zhang, MS, is a PhD candidate at Texas A&M Health Science Center. She is majoring in health services research with a concentration in health economics, and has dual master’s degrees in applied economics and management science. Zhang has participated in research projects on various topics, including the treatment of obesity in underserved rural areas, diabetes self-management programs, the effects of children case-mix adjustments on home care payments for Medicaid personal care services, Veterans Administration emergency management and evaluation capacities, the perioperative surgical home, and emergency department referrals.
Mia R. Zolna, MPH, is a research associate at the Guttmacher Institute. Her work focuses primarily on unintended pregnancy, abortion, and family planning service delivery in the United States. She received an AB in biopsychology and women’s studies from Vassar College and an MPH from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Read on Wiley Online Library
Volume 92, Issue 4 (pages 822–831)
Published in 2014
A Grain of Salt
The Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH): A Comprehensive Review of US and Non-US Studies Shows Predominantly Positive Quality and Cost Outcomes