Notes on Contributors

Catherine Barton-Sweeney has a BSc in psychology and an MSc in research methods. She is currently a National Health Service project manager, where she manages a research project investigating ways to improve outcomes in older people with cancer. She holds an honorary research fellow contract with Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry. Her research interests are in patient safety and patient experience.

David W. Bates is an internationally renowned expert in patient safety and quality and in using information technology to improve clinical decision making, patient safety, quality of care, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes assessment. A practicing general internist, Bates is chief quality officer at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and a professor of health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he co-directs the Program in Clinical Effectiveness. He has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, and is past chairman of the board of the American Medical Informatics Association. He serves as external program lead for patient safety research for the World Health Organization.

Allan Best is managing director of InSource, associate scientist at the Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, and clinical professor at the School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia. InSource is a Vancouver-based health services and population health research group with expertise in knowledge translation and exchange, systems thinking, and communications. It serves health systems decision makers at the regional, provincial, and national levels, offering innovative “whole systems” research, planning, and evaluation tools to support large-scale organizational change. Best holds a PhD.

Julian Bion is professor of intensive care medicine at the University of Birmingham, honorary consultant in intensive care medicine at the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital Birmingham, and foundation dean of the UK Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine. He is a researcher, educator, and front-line clinician. His research interests are directed at improving the reliability, safety, and patient-centeredness of acute and emergency health care, using human factors and implementation sciences to integrate research knowledge with best practice through reflective life-long learning. Bion holds an MBBS degree and an MD and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, the Royal College of Anaesthetists, and the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine.

Asaf Bitton is an instructor in medicine at the Division of General Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an instructor in health care policy at the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School. His main interests are in primary care delivery, policy reform, and innovation. He practices primary care and is the assistant medical director at the Brigham and Women’s Advanced Primary Care Associates, South Huntington, a new medical home practice in Jamaica Plain, MA. He also works as a special advisor to the Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation. Bitton holds an MD and an MPH. Views expressed are the author’s own.

Jennifer Bitz is the director of project management for InSource and a certified project manager with an MA in anthropology from the University of Victoria (specialization in applied nutritional anthropology). Her current work focuses on managing projects involving community partnership research, capacity building, and knowledge exchange uniting research and practice. Primary research tools used include qualitative interviews, focus groups, surveys (including quantitative and qualitative data), concept mapping, and social network analysis. Bitz’s work has focused on bringing critical and strategic thinking along with interpersonal and leadership skills to public and population health issues.

Kathleen L. Carluzzo is a health policy fellow at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. She is currently pursuing a Master of Science degree in health care leadership from Dartmouth College. Her research is focused on population health and accountable care organization evaluation. Previously, Carluzzo coordinated academic and community engagement in the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University, where she gained significant experience in academic writing; grant writing, implementation, and reporting; and qualitative research. Carluzzo holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science and in public and community service studies from Providence College.

Simon Carroll is a postdoctoral research fellow with the Core Public Health Functions Research Initiative/Renewal of Public Health Services at the University of Victoria School of Nursing. Carroll completed his doctoral work on alternative approaches to assessing the effectiveness of complex health interventions at the University of Victoria. He is currently developing a variety of social theory approaches to assessing the effectiveness of complex public health and health promotion interventions, particularly in relation to the integration of the contextual dimension into analyses of the effectiveness of these interventions. He has a special interest in complexity science and the application of critical realism in public health science along with methodological reflections on context inspired by ethnomethodology.

Sean A.P. Clouston is a Canadian Institutes of Health Research–funded postdoctoral research associate at the University of Victoria and is affiliated with the Medical Research Council’s Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing in London, UK. The manuscript published in this issue emerged from the generosity of the Canada-U.S. Fulbright Program, and was facilitated by Columbia University’s Center for the Study of Social Inequalities and Health. This work is part of a larger project focusing on understanding how social factors influence historical trajectories of mortality. His current work focuses on understanding the influence of international context when studying social inequalities and health with the Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Aging and the Healthy Ageing across the Lifecourse collaborative research networks. Clouston holds a PhD in sociology.

Cynthia G. Colen is an assistant professor of sociology at Ohio State University (OSU). She is also a research affiliate of OSU’s Institute for Population Research. Her research investigates how racial/ethnic inequalities in health are reproduced over successive generations with a particular emphasis on the experiences of middle-class African Americans. Colen holds a PhD in public health from the University of Michigan (2005) and was a Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar at Columbia University (2005–2007). Her work has been published in the American Journal of Public Health, Social Science & Medicine, the Du Bois Review, and the Annual Review of Sociology.

Mary Dixon-Woods is professor of medical sociology in the Department of Health Sciences at the University of Leicester Medical School in the UK, where she leads the Social Science Applied to Healthcare Improvement Research Group. Dixon-Woods is a graduate of the University of Oxford, and her interests lie in improving quality in health care and research. She has published over one hundred academic articles. She is an associate editor of BMJ Quality and Safety, co-editor of Chronic Illness, and member of the editorial boards for two other journals. She held a fellowship under the Economic and Social Research Council’s Public Services Programme (2008–2009) to study the regulation of doctors. She is a member of the Health Foundation Improvement Science Development Group. Dixon-Woods holds a BA, a DipStat, an MSc, and a DPhil.

Elliott S. Fisher is the James W. Squires Professor of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine at the Geisel School of Medicine and director for population health and policy at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. His early research focused on exploring the causes of the twofold differences in spending observed across U.S. regions and on understanding the implications of these variations for health and health care. His recent work has focused on developing policy approaches to slowing the growth of health care spending while improving quality. He was one of the originators of the concept of accountable care organizations and is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

Josette N. Gbemudu is a senior policy analyst at the National Governors Association (NGA). In this capacity, she works on issues related to health care system improvement, payment reform, and workforce planning and development. Prior to joining the NGA, Gbemudu was a health policy fellow at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, where she focused on the implementation of payment reform models and emerging accountable care organizations. Gbemudu holds a master’s degree in international health policy from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Trisha Greenhalgh is a family practitioner in London and co-director of the Global Health, Policy and Innovation Unit within the Centre for Primary Care and Public Health at Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry. She gained her first degree in social and political sciences from the University of Cambridge in 1980 and qualified in medicine from the University of Oxford in 1983. Her research interests lie at the interface between sociology and medicine. She uses innovative interdisciplinary approaches, drawing on narrative, ethnographic, and participatory methods, to explore complex, policy-related issues in contemporary health care.

Daniel E. Henderson is a resident in the generalist and primary care training program in the Department of Internal Medicine at New York– Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center. His professional interests center on improving health care through leadership development and system redesign. Between his third and fourth years at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Henderson served as health justice fellow of the American Medical Student Association and earned an MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health. After residency, he intends to pursue a career improving the health of individual patients as well as the delivery systems that serve them.

Carol A. Keohane is currently assistant vice president for the Academic Medical Center Patient Safety Organization (AMC PSO), a component entity of the Risk Management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions. In this role, Keohane is responsible for the strategic planning and operations for the AMC PSO. Prior to joining the AMC PSO, Keohane served for ten years as program director for the Center for Patient Safety Research and Practice at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Keohane has been involved in multiple research efforts aimed at evaluating novel approaches to making health care more effective and efficient while improving patient safety. She was instrumental in creating a patient safety research curriculum and has conducted international training for clinicians in patient safety research methods. Keohane has published on various patient safety issues including the evaluation of health information technologies such as computerized physician order entry, bar coding/electronic medication administration record, smart pumps, electronic prescribing, and electronic handoff communication tools, and their effect on patient care and clinician workflow.

Sara A. Kreindler is a researcher with the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority and assistant professor in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba. Her key role involves producing knowledge syntheses to help inform regional decision making, addressing such issues as health care silos, chronic disease, wait times, and patient engagement; she also conducts multi-and mixed-methods research and evaluation. She undertook the present study as a 2010–2011 Harkness Fellow. A Rhodes Scholar, Kreindler obtained her doctorate in social psychology at the University of Oxford.

Bridget K. Larson is director of health policy implementation at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. Her work focuses on advancing payment and delivery system reform to improve population health. She leads the implementation and evaluation of the accountable care organization (ACO) model through close collaboration with five national ACO pilot sites and the Brookings Institution. Previously, Larson worked at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute on developing best practice models for a new ambulatory cancer center. She has also held a variety of roles in the private sector in policy, regulatory affairs, and process development. Larson holds a Master of Science degree in health policy and management from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Myles Leslie graduated from the University of Toronto in 2011 as a Trudeau Foundation Scholar. He joined the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in the autumn of 2011. Prior to moving to Baltimore he spent two years as a social science researcher with the Sapphire Group at the University of Leicester’s Department of Health Sciences, observing and interviewing in hospitals across England. He is an ethnographer focusing on how clinicians interact with the technical and social institutions in which they work. His Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation–funded work at the Armstrong Institute examines interprofessional collaboration as a dimension of safety and quality.

Steven Lewis is a health policy consultant and health services researcher, and president of Access Consulting Ltd. in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. He is also adjunct professor of health policy at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia.

Bruce G. Link is a professor of epidemiology and sociomedical sciences at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University and a research scientist at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. His interests include the nature and consequences of stigma, the connection between mental illnesses and violent behaviors, and explanations for associations between social conditions and morbidity and mortality.

Fraser Macfarlane has a BSc in biochemistry from King’s College London, an MBA from the London Business School, and a PhD in health services research from the University of Surrey. He is an honorary senior lecturer at the Global Health, Policy and Innovation Unit within the Centre for Primary Care and Public Health at Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry. His research interests include innovation and organizational change in public-sector health care.

Eugene C. Nelson is a professor of community and family medicine at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College and the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. He serves as the director of population health and measurement at the Dartmouth Institute and at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Health. He is a Dartmouth College graduate with training in public health and health services research (Yale University and Harvard University); his current work focuses on health care innovation, population health, quality improvement, and person-centered measures of health outcomes and health care value.

Marcie S. Rubin is the director of public health research for the National Foundation for Facial Reconstruction in New York City. She completed her graduate studies in public health, with a focus on health disparities research, at Columbia University. She holds a DrPH, an MPH, and an MPA.

Jessie E. Saul has worked as a contractor with InSource since 2010 conducting rapid realist reviews, knowledge transfer activities, and supporting evidence-based policymaking. She also serves as the director of research for the North American Quitline Consortium, where she is engaged in developing a research infrastructure for the organization. From 2003 to 2008, she conducted research and led cessation evaluation efforts as senior research program manager at ClearWay Minnesota. She has conducted research on blood supply safety in France and the United States, and specializes in crosscultural comparisons of public understanding of health issues. Saul holds a bachelor’s degree in physics from Boston College and a doctoral degree in science and technology studies from Cornell University.

Gordon D. Schiff is a general internist and associate director of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Center for Patient Safety Research and Practice. He is associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. He worked for more than three decades at Chicago’s Cook County Hospital, where he directed a large general medicine clinic. He is author of Getting Results: Reliably Communicating and Acting on Critical Test Results (Joint Commission Resources, 2006) as well as numerous articles on patient safety, diagnosis error, lab-pharmacy linkages, computerized prescribing, health IT, and medication quality improvement. He is a member of the editorial boards of Medical Care, the Journal of Public Health Policy, and BMJ Quality and Safety. He was the lead investigator for this Commonwealth Fund–sponsored medical home pilot qualitative evaluation.

Gregory R. Schwartz practices general internal medicine at Brigham Circle Medical Associates and teaches residents at the Phyllis Jen Center for Primary Care, both based at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He received his medical and law degrees from Yale University. Schwartz’s research interests include the impact of health system reforms at the level of primary care delivery on physician and patient behavior, access to primary care, and the cost of prescription drugs.

Stephen M. Shortell is the Blue Cross of California Distinguished Professor of Health Policy and Management and professor of organization behavior at the School of Public Health and the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also dean of the School of Public Health at Berkeley and holds appointments in the Department of Sociology at Berkeley and the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies at the University of California, San Francisco. Shortell received his undergraduate degree from the University of Notre Dame, his master’s degree in public health from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his PhD in behavioral sciences from the University of Chicago. During 2006–2007 he was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. A leading health care scholar, Shortell has received numerous awards for his research examining the performance of integrated delivery systems, the organizational factors associated with quality and outcomes of care, the development of effective hospital-physician relationships, and the factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based processes for treating patients with chronic illness. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; past president of AcademyHealth, and past editor of Health Services Research.

Elizabeth E. Stewart is the evaluation director at the American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network (AAFP NRN). She served on the evaluation team for the nation’s first large-scale demonstration project of the patient-centered medical home through the AAFP and TransforMED. Currently she oversees the design and implementation aspects of all evaluation and qualitative efforts of the NRN, the country’s largest practice-based research network. Stewart holds a PhD and an MBA.

Ashley Struthers completed a Bachelor of Medical Rehabilitation in occupational therapy. After working for several years in child and adolescent mental health, she went on to attain a Master of Arts in international development. She currently works as a research associate for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority.

Carolyn Tarrant is senior lecturer and research fellow in the SAPPHIRE group at the University of Leicester. She is a social scientist and qualitative researcher, and holds a PhD. Her research interests include patient safety, trust and cooperation between individuals and in teams, and research participation. She has been involved in a number of large-scale ethnographic studies of quality and safety in health care.

Aricca D. Van Citters is an evaluator working with the Center for Population Health at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. She has over twelve years of experience conducting qualitative and quantitative process and outcomes evaluations in a variety of health care settings. Recent research projects focus on understanding the formation and performance of accountable care organizations, and understanding the factors that contribute to improvement in the quality and efficiency of care. Van Citters received a Master of Science degree in evaluative clinical sciences from Dartmouth College.

Andrew Wang worked on this project at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Currently, he is a researcher at the Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a student at the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests are in public health, health services and management, cost-effectiveness analysis, health disparities, health care policy, and behavioral medicine. He received his BA in molecular cell biology and minor in law and society from Cornell University, his MPH from Columbia University, and certification in public health. He spent his youth in Chelmsford, MA.

Fran Woodard is director of transformation and cancer programs at King’s Health Partners, London. She is an expert in large-scale multi-organizational transformation incorporating the enhancement of quality clinical service delivery, integrating research and clinical practice, capital and information technology solutions, income diversification strategies, and the delivery of patient-centered care. Woodard is an experienced health care senior manager with a clinical background. She earned a doctorate in “leading inter-organisational change” from Middlesex University in 2007 and an MBA from the Open University in 2001.

Frances M. Wu is a doctoral student in health services and policy analysis at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health. Her current research interests focus on quality improvement and health information technology. Prior to pursuing her doctorate, she was a health care consultant in New York City and also worked in clinical and service quality improvement for a Northern California–based health system. Wu holds a Master of Science degree in evaluative clinical sciences from Dartmouth College.

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Volume 90, Issue 3 (pages 619–629)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00676.x
Published in 2012