The Milbank Memorial Fund is an endowed operating foundation that publishes The Milbank Quarterly, commissions projects, and convenes state health policy decision makers on issues they identify as important to population health.
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The Center for Evidence-based Policy at Oregon Health & Science University is a national leader in evidence-based decision making and policy design.
Keep up with news and updates from the Milbank Memorial Fund. Get the latest from thought leaders, including Christopher F. Koller, president of the Fund.
We publish The Milbank Quarterly, as well as reports and issues briefs on topics important to population health.
March 2012 (Volume 90)
Linda H. Aiken is the Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor of Nursing and professor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, where she directs the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research. She has pioneered a high-profile program of research focusing on the impact of nursing on patient outcomes. She has won the highest awards in nursing (the Baxter International Foundation’s Episteme Award), health services research (AcademyHealth Distinguished Investigator Award, Academy-Health Article-of-the-Year award, and the William B. Graham Prize for Health Services Research), practice (the Joint Commission’s Ernest A. Codman Award), and multiple international awards (the American Nurses Credentialing Center HRH Princess Muna al-Hussein Award and Inaugural International Nursing Research Hall of Fame inductee). Aiken is an authority on causes, consequences, and solutions for nurse shortages in the United States and internationally. She holds a PhD and an RN license.
Katherine Baicker is professor of health economics in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. She is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and an elected member of the Institute of Medicine. From 2005 to 2007, she served as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. She is currently on the editorial boards of Health Affairs, the Journal of Health Economics, and the Forum for Health Economics and Policy; chair of the board of directors of AcademyHealth; on the Congressional Budget Office’s Panel of Health Advisers; and a commissioner on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. She received her BA in economics from Yale University and her PhD in economics from Harvard University.
Charles L. Bosk is a professor of sociology in the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his PhD from the University of Chicago. Bosk’s research is supported by an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. His most recent book is What Would You Do? Juggling Bioethics and Ethnography (University of Chicago Press 2008).
Martin L. Brown is chief of the Health Services and Economics Branch of the National Cancer Institute. His research has focused on the economic burden of cancer to individuals and society; the acquisition and analysis of economic data on cancer prevention and control; evaluation and development of methodology and analytical tools for modeling and estimating the cost-effectiveness of specific cancer prevention and control interventions, programs, and policies; and the relationship of socioeconomic status, community structure, and health system organization to access to cancer control services in the context of the changing system of health care delivery organization and financing. He has published over one hundred articles, reports, and book chapters in these research areas. He holds a PhD.
Margo Brooks Carthon is an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing in the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research. She is a clinically trained nurse and professionally trained as a historian and health services researcher. Her research focuses on the history of racial and ethnic health disparities in the U.S. health care system and on ameliorating health inequities through a focus on the nursing workforce. She holds a PhD.
William J. Congdon is a research director in the economic studies program at the Brookings Institution, where he studies the application of behavioral economics to topics in economic policy. He has previously served as a staff economist for the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. He received his BA in economics from Dartmouth College and his MA in economics from Princeton University.
Kim Dalziel is a senior research fellow with the Health Economics and Social Policy Group in the Division of Health Sciences at the University of South Australia. She holds a bachelor of health science (hons) degree and a master’s degree and PhD in health economics. Dalziel’s research has included economic evaluation of lifestyle interventions in the areas of nutrition and physical activity and a review and investigation of all Australian cost-effectiveness analyses published to date. Her current research interests are priority setting in the area of child abuse and neglect of children, the methodology of economic evaluation, and equity.
Inge M.C.M. de Kok is a researcher in the Department of Public Health at the Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam. Her primary research focus is cervical cancer prevention through modeling and implementation of population-based interventions. She is an epidemiologist and has worked on several research projects that aimed to estimate effects and costs of cervical cancer prevention methods, most through the use of the microsimulation model MISCAN. She has a PhD in public health.
Dik Habbema is emeritus professor in medical decision sciences in the Department of Public Health at the Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam. He is author of more than five hundred papers on cancer screening, (tropical) infectious disease control, clinical decision sciences, and fertility medicine. He has served on many advisory boards, including for the Health Council of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Committee for Medical Research, and the World Health Organization. In recent years, he worked at the Erasmus MC University Medical Center, the World Health Organization in Africa, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Washington DC. At NCI, he worked on comparative effectiveness studies and on studies of the value of mathematical modelling in informing health policy. He holds a PhD.
Malo André Hutson is an assistant professor in the Department of City and Regional Planning at the University of California at Berkeley. His research focuses on community development, regional planning, urban sustainability, and population health. In addition, Hutson focuses on urban policy and politics and the role of institutions in influencing urban and regional development. He earned his doctorate in urban and regional planning from the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining the faculty at Berkeley, Hutson was a Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar at the Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan.
George A. Kaplan is the Thomas Francis Collegiate Professor Emeritus of Public Health in the School of Public Health, a research professor emeritus at the Institute for Social Research, and a faculty member in the Center for the Study of Complex Systems, all at the University of Michigan. Kaplan is a social epidemiologist whose work is focused on the role of behavioral, social, psychological, and socioeconomic factors in health and health inequalities. A major theme in his work is the role of “upstream” and “downstream” factors in maintaining health, delaying disease, and improving function, with an emphasis on the linking of social and biological determinants. He describes his work as focused on the links between “social divides” and “health divides.” He holds a PhD.
Lesly Kelly was a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing while conducting this study. She is currently an assistant research professor at Arizona State University and the clinical research program director of Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center in Phoenix. Her research focuses on the role of nursing in patient outcomes in acute care, nursing workforce issues, and the effect of system and technology influences on nursing and patient outcomes. She holds a PhD and an RN license.
Jane J. Kim is an assistant professor of health decision science in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). Her research focuses on evaluating the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions related to women’s health. She has developed and applied a series of mathematical models to perform cost-effectiveness analyses of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States, Europe, and less developed regions. Kim holds an MSc in health policy and management from HSPH and a PhD in health policy and decision sciences from Harvard University.
Matthew D. McHugh is an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing in the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research. He is currently a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholar. His research focuses on the effects of policy and organizational factors on nursing practice and health outcomes. At Penn, he is a senior fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics and the Center for Public Health Initiatives. McHugh was a Fulbright Scholar with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. He received his PhD in nursing from Penn, his MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health, and his JD from the Northeastern University School of Law.
Mahasin S. Mujahid is an assistant professor in the Division of Epidemiology at the University of California at Berkeley, School of Public Health. Her current research and publications focus on social epidemiology and population health with an emphasis on racial-ethnic and place-based health disparities.
Sendhil Mullainathan is a professor of economics in the Department of Economics at Harvard University. He is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a scientific advisor at ideas42, a nonprofit that applies behavioral science to social problems. He currently serves as the assistant director of research for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. In 2002 he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship. He received his BA in computer science, economics, and mathematics from Cornell University and his PhD in economics from Harvard University.
Mark D. Neuman is assistant professor of anesthesiology and critical care at the University of Pennsylvania. Neuman is a practicing anesthesiologist and a senior fellow at the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, and his work examines inpatient quality of care for frail older adults and processes of medical decision making by physicians in the context of elective surgery. From 2008 to 2010, he was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania.
Rachelle Sara Opie has a bachelor’s degree with honors in nutrition and dietetics from Monash University. She has worked as a clinical dietitian in both the hospital and community setting for over six years. Opie has also worked as a part-time researcher since 2006, covering a wide range of health and social issues. She is a current doctoral candidate.
Nalini Ranjit is an assistant professor at the Austin Regional Campus of the University of Texas School of Public Health. Her research interests include psychosocial disparities in health and behavioral epidemiology. Her published work in these areas, in the Archives of Internal Medicine and in Pediatrics, has received widespread media attention. She is currently engaged in research examining the epidemiology of obesity and obesogenic behaviors. Ranjit holds a PhD.
Leonie Segal is the Foundation Chair in Health Economics and Social Policy in the Division of Health Sciences at the University of South Australia. Her research is at the evidence-policy interface across several areas, including primary care systems, health workforce planning, priority setting, and a partnership with government to develop a cross-portfolio investment strategy to reduce child abuse and neglect. Her most cited publications are in the fields of patient-citizen empowerment, health system reform, economic evaluation lifestyle interventions, and methodological issues in measuring economic performance. Segal holds honor’s and master’s degrees in economics and a PhD in health economics. She sits on several government and research committees.
Brenda E. Sirovich is a general internist, health services researcher, and associate professor of medicine and of community and family medicine at the Outcomes Group of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in White River Junction, Vermont; Dartmouth Medical School; and the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. She left practice in an inner-city community health center to pursue research on whether what she’d been doing there made any sense. Her research focus has evolved from a concentration on Pap smear screening practices and outcomes to the rational use of diagnostic testing and health care services in general. Her work explores the forces that influence physician and provider decision making regarding health care interventions, particularly diagnostic testing. She holds an MD and an MS.
Douglas M. Sloane is a sociologist and adjunct professor in the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. He earned master’s and doctoral degrees in sociology from the University of Arizona.
Evan Wu is a data analyst at the Center for Health Outcomes Policy and Research at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. He has a bachelor of arts in statistics and is pursuing graduate work at the University of Pennsylvania in biostatistics.
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Volume 90, Issue 1 (pages 208–213)
Published in 2012
In This Issue
Metropolitan Fragmentation and Health Disparities: Is There a Link?