We focus on a number of topic areas identified by state health policy leaders as important to population health.
Keep up with news and updates from the Milbank Memorial Fund. Get the latest from thought leaders, including Christopher F. Koller, president of the Fund.
We publish The Milbank Quarterly, as well as reports, issues briefs, and case studies on topics important to population health.
The Center for Evidence-based Policy at Oregon Health & Science University is a national leader in evidence-based decision making and policy design.
The Milbank Memorial Fund is an endowed operating foundation that publishes The Milbank Quarterly, commissions projects, and convenes state health policy decision makers on issues they identify as important to population health.
December 2005 (Volume 83)
These notes identify the positions each author held when his or her article was first published and significant prior and subsequent positions, when this information could be located.
In 1973 Ronald Andersen was associate professor at the Center for Health Administration Studies at the University of Chicago. He is now the Wasserman Professor of Health Administration Studies and professor of sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health. Andersen has studied access to medical care throughout his career. His Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization has been used extensively as a framework for utilization studies.
In 1989 Jerry Avorn was director of the Program for the Analysis of Clinical Strategies at Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. He is now professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. An internist, geriatrician, and pharmacoepidemiologist, Avorn does research on medication use, with particular reference to elderly patients and chronic disease.
In 1958 Eva Balamuth (later Weinblatt) was project director for studies of coronary heart disease at the Health Insurance Plan (HIP) of Greater New York. She later served for many years as assistant director for research and statistics at that organization.
In 1947 Frank G. Boudreau was executive director of the Milbank Memorial Fund, a position he held from 1937 through 1961. An epidemiologist with strong interest in demography, nutrition, and mental health, he worked for the League of Nations Health Organization from 1925 to 1937. During World War II he chaired the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council. He died in 1970.
In 1948 R.V. Bowers was a social science research consultant in the Mental Health Division of the U.S. Public Health Service.
In 1972 Lester Breslow was dean of the School of Public Health of the University of California, Los Angeles, where today he is professor emeritus of health services as well as dean emeritus. He was also director of public health for the state of California and president of the American Public Health Association, the Association of Schools of Public Health, and the International Epidemiological Association.
In 1998 Robert H. Brook was director of RAND Health Sciences Program and professor of medicine and health services at the Center for Health Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health—positions he still holds. He also directs the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program at UCLA and is a corporate fellow at RAND. He is an internationally recognized expert on the measurement of quality and health status and on evaluating the effects of policy changes on health status and quality of life.
In 1953 Antonio Ciocco was professor and founding chair of the Department of Biostatistics at the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, following long service in the U.S. Public Health Service. Under his leadership, this department’s research emphasized the development of methodologies for field investigations of chronic illness and disability and their effects on the individual, the family, and the community.
In 1934 Selwyn D. Collins was the senior statistician in statistical investigations at the National Institute of Health. Since 1920 he also served as a statistician for the U.S. Public Health Service until his death in 1959 at which time he was chief of the Morbidity and Health Statistics Branch of that institution. Collins lectured regularly on hygiene, preventative medicine, and vital statistics at both George Washington University and Johns Hopkins University. He also served as a consultant or an advisor to a number of organizations and agencies, including the League of Nations Health Organization, the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, and the War Department.
In 1988 Cynthia Matthews Cready was a graduate student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has been assistant professor of sociology at the University of North Texas since 2000. Her research interests include long-term care of the aged, racial differentiation and inequality, marriage and family, desegregation, and schooling in the rural South.
In 1934 Michael M. Davis was director for medical services of the Julius Rosenwald Fund in Chicago, following a career as an innovator in organizing health services. Studies financed by the Rosenwald Fund under his leadership informed the establishment of the Blue Cross system of hospitalization insurance. In 1934–35 Davis assisted in drafting the Social Security Act, and in 1945 he helped draft President Harry S. Truman’s message advocating a national health program. He died in 1971 at the age of 91.
Neva R. Deardorff died in 1958, the year her article appeared in the Milbank Quarterly. A statistician, she worked in the area of social welfare and health. Beginning as assistant to the general manager of the American Red Cross during World War I, she served in many different posts over forty years. For twenty years she was director of the research bureau of the Welfare Council of New York. She was also a founder of the Health Insurance Plan (HIP) of Greater New York and its director of research and statistics for eight years.
In 1958 Paul M. Densen was director of research and statistics of the Health Insurance Plan (HIP) of Greater New York. He is now on the board of directors and past president (1978–1981) of the Massachusetts Health Data Consortium. He has also held leadership positions at Vanderbilt University, the Veteran’s Administration, and the New York City Health Department. For almost twenty years he directed the Harvard Center for Community Health and Medical Care and advised the U.S. National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics.
In 1966 Avedis Donabedian was professor of public health economics at the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan, where he would become one of its most renowned faculty members. His article in the Milbank Quarterly introduced the concepts of structure, process, and outcome, which to this day comprise the model used to evaluate the quality of health care. This article was later distinguished as a “Citation Classic” in a 1983 issue of Current Contents: Social and Behavioral Sciences. He died in 2001.
In 1972 Paul M. Ellwood Jr. was executive director of the American Rehabilitation Foundation in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A pediatric neurologist, Ellwood was among the first proponents of health maintenance organizations, and in 1973 he advised the Nixon White House on the bill that created HMOs. He founded the Jackson Hole Group, a health policy think tank, which in the early 1990s advocated a comprehensive plan that emphasized “managed competition,” pitting rival HMOs against one another to contain costs and improve quality.
In 1934 I.S. Falk was a research associate at the Milbank Memorial Fund, seconded to the staff of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Security. In 1936 he was hired as principal medical economist for the Social Security Board and went on to head the agency’s Office of Research and Statistics before leaving government service in 1954. He then had a long and distinguished career at Yale University as professor of public health until his death in 1984.
In 1972 Rashi Fein was professor of the economics of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a member of the Center for Community Health and Medical Care at Harvard University. Fein served on the Harvard faculty for thirty years and is now professor emeritus in the Department of Social Medicine. He also served on the board of the Milbank Memorial Fund from 1987 to 1990. He has published on universal health coverage and equity in health care and on the economics of mental health and of the physician workforce. His most recent book, The Health Care Mess, co-authored with Julius B. Richmond, was published in the fall of 2005.
In 1948 R.H. Felix was chief of the Mental Hygiene Division of the Federal Public Health Service. While serving in this position, he helped develop the Mental Health Act of 1946, which established the National Institute of Mental Health—a research institute of the National Institutes of Health. He was appointed as the first director of the Institute in 1949, a post he held until he retired from government service in 1964. He moved into the academic field and was professor of psychiatry and dean of the medical school at St. Louis University and later research director of the Scottish Rite Psychophrenic Research Program.
In 1986 Daniel M. Fox was professor of social science and humanities at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has been president of the Milbank Memorial Fund since 1990. He has served in state government (Massachusetts and New York), as an advisor to and staff member of three federal agencies, and as a faculty member and administrator at Harvard University and then at the Health Sciences Center of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has written books and articles on health and related policy and on the history of medicine, economic and social theory, taxation, and philanthropy.
In 1983 James F. Fries was associate professor of medicine in the Division of Immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine. His article in the Milbank Quarterly outlined his theory on the compression of morbidity, which contributed to the conceptual basis for programs in health promotion and healthy aging. He is currently professor of medicine at Stanford University and director and founder of Healthtrac Medical, a health promotion and intervention company, whose mission is to improve population health by helping individuals reduce health risks, thus decreasing health costs.
In 1986 Larry Gostin was professor of health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is currently professor of law and associate dean for research and academic programs at Georgetown University Law Center, a professor of public health at Johns Hopkins University, and the director of the Center for Law and the Public’s Health at both Johns Hopkins and Georgetown. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and editor of health law and ethics for the Journal of the American Medical Association. Gostin’s books are Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint;Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader;and The AIDS Pandemic.
In 1977 Ernest M. Gruenberg was chairman of the Department of Mental Hygiene at the School of Mental Hygiene and Public Health and professor of psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Earlier he served as a faculty member at other institutions, practiced psychiatry, and was executive director of the New York State Mental Health Commission. Gruenberg pioneered in community mental health as a staff member of the Milbank Memorial Fund and as a psychiatrist at Presbyterian Hospital in Manhattan and at the Hudson River Psychiatric Center. He died in 1991.
In 1989 Clark C. Havighurst was professor and director of the Program on Legal Issues in Health Care at the Duke University School of Law. He has taught courses in health care law and policy, antitrust law, and economic regulation at Duke since 1964, where he still serves on the faculty, now as the William Neal Reynolds Professor Emeritus of Law. He is an advocate of policies relying more on competition driven by consumer choice than on government or the medical profession. His research has been instrumental in defining antitrust enforcement in health care and continues to stress how decentralized decision making can positively affect health care issues.
In 1938 Dorothy F. Holland was on the staff of the Division of Public Health Methods, United States Public Health Service.
In 1953 Daniel G. Horvitz was a faculty member in the Department of Biostatistics at the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh. He has also held academic appointments at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He served as executive vice president from 1983 through 1988 at the Research Triangle Institute and participated on the panel of the National Health Care Survey of 1992.
In 1961 Jane M. [Murphy] Hughes was a PhD graduate of Cornell University and an administrator and researcher on the Stirling County Study (see Leighton biography), which she had joined in 1951. She and her husband, Alexander H. Leighton, have continued the study for more than fifty years. Along with Leighton, Murphy joined the faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health in 1966, where she is now professor of epidemiology. Since Leighton’s retirement from Harvard in 1975, Murphy has been the director of the Stirling County Study, a study that continues to shed light on mental health issues today.
In 1953 Morton Kramer was chief of the biometrics branch of the National Institute of Mental Health, a position he held until 1975. He also served on the faculty of New York University and the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, retiring from the latter in 1984. His research helped create international standards in mental health diagnosis.
In 1961 Alexander H. Leighton was professor of sociology and anthropology at Cornell University and professor of psychiatry at Cornell Medical College. In 1948 he had initiated the Stirling County Study, the first post-war study of the prevalence and distribution of mental illness in a general population. Leighton and his wife, Jane Murphy (see Jane M. Hughes biography), have continued the study for more than fifty years. In 1966 he moved to the Harvard School of Public Health and was the first head of the Department of Behavioral Sciences. Upon retiring from Harvard in 1975 he assumed a post-retirement position at Dalhousie University.
In 1980 Theodore R. Marmor was chairman of the Center for Health Studies and professor of public health and political science at Yale University, where he is now professor of public policy and management and of political science. He has also held faculty positions at the Minnesota School of Public Affairs and the University of Chicago, served on President Carter’s Commission on Income Maintenance, and was a senior social policy advisor to Walter Mondale in the 1984 presidential campaign. He has published widely on national and international issues in health politics and policy and on the history of Medicare.
In 1998 Elizabeth A. McGlynn was director of the Center for Research on Quality in Health Care at RAND in Santa Monica, California, a position she still holds. She is also associate director of RAND Health. Her research has focused on the quality and appropriateness of medical and mental health care and managed care, including the development of a comprehensive, clinically based system for quality assessment.
In 1989 Thomas J. McLaughlin was a doctoral candidate in the Department of Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School, where he is now a faculty member in the Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention. His research interests focus on technology diffusion and health policy evaluation.
In 1934 Albert G. Milbank was president of the Milbank Memorial Fund. As one of the founders of the Fund in 1905, Milbank served as its secretary and treasurer, from 1905 to 1922, then as its treasurer until 1929, and as its president from 1929 until his death in 1949. From 1904 until 1939, he served on the board of managers of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. He was also a trustee of its successor organization, the Community Service Society, from its inception in 1939 until his death. In 1936, at his urging, the Milbank Memorial Fund established the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, which became a leading U.S. institution in demographic studies.
In 1980 James A. Morone was Bustin Research Fellow at the Center for Health Administration Studies at the University of Chicago. He is now professor of political science at Brown University. He has also held faculty positions at Yale University and the University of Bremen. Morone was a member and recording secretary of Governor Mario Cuomo’s task force on Universal Health Care for All New Yorkers, and he is a founding member of the health section of the National Academy of Social Insurance. He has written books and articles about general American politics and government as well as health politics and policy.
In 1973 John F. Newman was a research associate at the Center for Health Administration Studies at the University of Chicago. He is currently associate professor of health administration at Georgia State University. He served as director of research and development for the Blue Cross & Blue Shield Association and was a consultant for the Medicus Systems Corporation, and he is co-chair of the Human Resource Management Faculty Forum of the Association of University Programs in Health Administration.
In 1971 Abdel R. Omran was professor of epidemiology at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His conception of an epidemiologic transition was one of the first attempts to account for the effects of major changes in health services and standards of living on patterns of disease. He also served on the faculty of the George Washington University Department of International Public Health in the School of Public Health and Health Services.
In 1988 James E. Pawelak was a doctoral student in the Department of Health Policy and Administration in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before graduate school he had been a social worker in the Veterans’ Administration.
In 1933 George St.J. Perrott wrote or co-wrote the first of several articles about health issues in the context of the Depression to be published in the Milbank Quarterly. He was then the principal statistician for the U.S. Public Health Service, and he later became chief of its Division of Public Health Methods. His research also included mine explosives and safety, morbidity statistics, and medical economics.
In 1948 Ruth R. Puffer was director of statistical services at the Tennessee Department of Public Health in Nashville. She served as chief of the Department of Health Statistics of the Pan American Health Organization from 1953 to 1970, where she had a principal role in the Inter-American Investigation of Childhood Mortality.
In 1966 Irwin M. Rosenstock was co-director of research programs and professor of public health administration at the University of Michigan. In 1987 he became professor emeritus in the Department of Health Behavior and Education, which he had helped establish at that institution. He also helped develop the Health Belief Model, a model that is widely used to explain, predict, and modify preventative-health, sick-role, and illness behaviors. He died in 2001.
In 1998 Mark A. Schuster was a senior natural scientist at RAND in Santa Monica, assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of California, Los Angeles, and director of the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion. He is still on the faculty of UCLA as professor of pediatrics and public health as well as director of the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion and co-director of the RAND Center for Maternal, Child, & Adolescent Health Research. His research interests include child and adolescent health promotion and risk prevention, quality of health care, parent-child communication, and worksite health promotion.
In 1984 Anne A. Scitovsky was a senior staff scientist at the Research Institute of the Palo Alto Medical Foundation, from which she is now retired. Her research focuses on the costs of treating specific diseases, the effects of changes in medical technology on costs, the economic costs of HIV/AIDS, and medical care costs at the end of life. In 1994, she wrote a follow-up article on “The High Cost of Dying,” which was published in the Milbank Quarterly, Volume 72.
In 1989 Steven B. Soumerai was assistant professor in the Department of Social Medicine and Health Policy at Harvard Medical School, where he is now professor in the Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention. His research has emphasized methods for improving drug prescribing practices of physicians and the effects of drug coverage and cost-containment policies on health care quality.
In 1974 Barbara Starfield was associate professor at Johns Hopkins University. She is now University Distinguished Professor of Health Policy at Johns Hopkins University and director of the Primary Care Policy Center. Her research focuses on understanding the impact of health services on health, using both clinical and population-based approaches. She has accorded particular attention to the relative contributions of primary care and specialty care to health. She was founder and first president of the International Society for Equity in Health.
In 1934 Edgar Sydenstricker served as director of research for the Milbank Memorial Fund, with which he had been affiliated since 1925. He was also scientific director of the Fund from mid-1935 until his death in 1936. He wrote several books and contributed articles to many scientific periodicals in the areas of public health, epidemiology, medical economics, and social research. His scientific achievements included the development of methods for measuring the effectiveness of health department procedures worldwide. He also served as chief statistician of the U.S. Public Health Service and was associated with President Hoover’s Committee on Social Trends and, as staff member of the Fund, with President Roosevelt’s Committee on Economic Security.
In 1988 William G. Weissert was professor of health policy and administration and director of the Program on Aging at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is currently professor emeritus at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and professor in the Department of Political Science at Florida State University. His research focuses on the cost-effectiveness of home care and the role of political institutions in health policymaking.
In 1932 Ray Lyman Wilbur was president of Stanford University, a post he held until 1943. He had previously been dean of that university’s school of medicine from 1911 to 1916. He served as Stanford’s chancellor from 1943 until his death in 1949. Wilbur also chaired the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, was President Harding’s personal physician, and was the thirty-first U.S. Secretary of the Interior under President Hoover.
In 1989 Irving Kenneth Zola was professor of sociology in the Department of Sociology at Brandeis University, with which he was affiliated from 1963 until his death in 1994. Having been stricken with polio at age sixteen and injured in an automobile accident three years later, Zola used canes and braces to help him walk. He understood firsthand the challenges facing those with physical disabilities and wrote numerous research-based articles on disability policy as well as essays and short stories on experiencing disabling conditions. The founding member and first president of the Society for Disability Studies, Zola also founded and served as a member of the board of the Boston Self-Help Center and was the publisher and editor of Disability Studies Quarterly.
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Volume 83, Issue 4 (pages 897–907)
Published in 2005
In This Issue