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September 2019 (Volume 97)
Hector P. Rodriguez
Bing Ying Poon
Stephen M. Shortell
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Context: Adult primary care practices of accountable care organizations (ACOs) are adopting a range of patient engagement strategies, but little is known about how these strategies are related to patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and how relational coordination among team members aids implementation.
Methods: We used a mixed-methods cohort study design integrating administrative and clinical data with two data collection waves (2014-2015 and 2016-2017) of clinician and staff surveys (n = 764), surveys of adult patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 1,276), and key informant interviews of clinicians, staff, and administrators (n=103). Multivariable linear regression estimated the relationship of practice adoption of patient engagement strategies, relational coordination, and PROs of physical, social, and emotional function. The mediating role of patient activation was examined using cross-lagged panel models. Key informant interviews assessed how relational coordination influences the implementation of patient engagement strategies.
Findings: There were no differential improvements in PROs among patients of practices with high vs. low adoption of patient engagement strategies or among patients of practices with high vs. low relational coordination. The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is strongly related to better physical, emotional, and social PROs over time. Relational coordination facilitated the implementation of patient engagement strategies, but key informants indicated that resources and systems to systematically track treatment preferences and goals beyond clinical indicators were needed to support effective implementation.
Conclusions: Adult patients with diabetes and/or CVD of ACO-affiliated practices with high adoption of patient engagement strategies do not have improved PROs of physical, emotional, and social function over a one-year time frame. Implementing patient engagement strategies increases task interdependence among primary care team members, which needs to be carefully managed. ACOs may need to make greater investment in collecting, monitoring, and analyzing PRO data to ensure that practice adoption and implementation of patient engagement strategies leads to improved physical, emotional, and social function among patients.
Keywords: patient engagement, accountable care organizations, patient care team, patient reported outcome measures, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases.
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Published in 2019 Volume 97, Issue 3 (pages 692-735) DOI: 10.1111/1468-0009.12400
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